3D printing is the three-dimensional printing technology swiftly developed with paramount application in the medical field. It is the type of addition process that utilizes bio-materials and cells instead of long-established plastic and metals to produce a 3d structure that is 3d tissue. These biomaterials are also known as bio-links, and they resemble the structure. These biomaterials can also be used for many purposes including recreating medicines, medication development, discovery, and 3d cell composition. Studying functions of the human body, biomaterials such as organ-on-chips can be manipulated in 3d.
In the other words, 3d bioprinting is a kind of 3d printing that possibly establishes anything from blood vessels and bone tissue to living tissues for different medical functions, including medicine testing, tissue creation, and development. But the most important function of 3d bioprinting is reproducing medicines. As Chris Mason and Peter Dunhill mentioned, including or regenerating ” human cells, organs or tissues to establish normal function”. Here 3d bioprinting has the most important role, particularly taking into high requirements for tissue and organ transplantation globally.
In this article, we will cover many things regarding 3d bioprinting that will provide information about how it works, its historical background, its plan, and last but not least its advantages and disadvantages.
Historical Background Of 3D Bioprinting:
3D bioprinting is not a newly established technology. It was created almost 30 years ago. But no one paid heed to this technology at that time. But with time it has made its position among the different industries and performs a major role in the medical field. It started emerging approximately in the 1900s.
The 1980s and 1990s:
The commencement of 3D technology marked its date as 1984 when Charles Hull created stereolithography that let him invent designs from coats with resin layers by a layer that moment only a few could consider. This freshly evolved invention could have a real impact on the progression of the latest science and medicine.
After a few years in 1996 Dr. Forgace, the inventor of Organovo, investigated the behavior of cells and realized that they can form entirely new spatial structures by mixing. From that moment 3D bioprinting started functioning, the first time the spatial scaffold was invented at the wake forest in 2000 using it as the world’s first synthetic organ was created.
2000 and forward years:
After three years, the first 3D bioprinting machine was invented, also known as the first ancestor of the latest 3D machine. Thomas Boland, a scientist from the University of El Paso was the inventor of this machine. He modified the office inkjet printer and also enhanced his research in the field of bioprinting with biological materials.
2010 and forward years:
In the following year, many types of research and innovation came into existence with scientific research such creations as the baptismal tissue and liver in 2012 originating tissue with a bloodborne network in 2014, and the heart valve in 2016.
During this time in bioprinting technology, organo was making its high position in this technology. This platform was working on the development and discovery of new medicines by using 3D biodegradable tissue designs containing cancer.
Another best invention was created in 2015 when the Swedish company Cellink invented its printing machine ” inkredible” which cost $5000 at that time which was a lower price than other innovations. It was its design that made it unique and different.
One can easily predict that the future of these technologies will be flourishing within a few years, but no one can guess what new inventions will emerge in the future. Because these amazing technologies have astonished people with their amazing functions and capabilities.
Fundamental principles of 3D Technology:
3D bioprinting is built on the process of layers with the meticulous arrangement of biochemicals, biological constituents, and living cells by the spatial rule of the placement of working constituents of the fabricated 3D design. There are three fundamental types of 3D bioprinting.
- Biomimicry or biomimetics
- Autonomous self-assembly
- Mini tissue building blocks
It is the process of preparation of printing applications and maturation can be followed by three simple methods.
Pre bio printing is used for only the purpose of printing. The technologies used in the field of computer tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) scans.
It is based on the digital model, which is the actual printing method in which bio-ink is put into printer cartridge and deposition.
It is mainly used for creating stable designs for biological objects by stimulating mechanical chemical and mechanical printed parts.
How does 3D Bio-Printing work:
It begins with a design of a structure that reacts layer by layer with bio-inks either using blended with living cells, or seeded with cells after printing is done. These beginning designs can emerge from anywhere such as a CT and MRI scan, a computer-produced models(CAD) program, or a file that can be downloaded from the internet.
That 3d objects send into a slicer, a specialized type of computer program that examines the geometry of the object and produces a series of slim layers which creates the shape of the real model which is heaped vertically. Slicer and Cura are instances of slicers mainly used in 3D printing. Allevi is also a special slicer, used only for bioprinting, set up into our Allevi bioprinter software.
When a model has been sliced, then slices of the model transform into path data, saved as a G-code file, which a 3D printer receives the bioprinter follows the method in the G-code file, containing information controlling bed plate temperature, pressure, frequency, and cross-linking intensity and also the 3D moment way generated by the slices. Once the function of the G-code completes then the printer can seeds or culture with cells as part of a bio study.
Advantages and Disadvantages of 3D Printing:
- Permits intimating the original structure of the desired tissue or organ.
- Potentially revolutionizing future medical cure abilities.
- The possible invention of patient-specific and organ-specific cures.
- Drugs can be analyzed more accurately.
- Reducing tests on animals.
- Process of automation complexes.
- Less human error, consistency.
- Higher pricing technology.
- It can be difficult to maintain the cell environment.
- Consumption of energy.
- Ethical concerns.
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